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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of death worldwide, 17.7 millions of individual died of CVD annually. CVD has been previously connected as a disease in rich countries. However, current data shows that 85% of CVD occurs in developing countries, representing 30% of all global deaths. Therefore, CVD kills more people in poor countries. 

Global burden of Non-communicable disease in 2015. CVD, cardiovascular disease; IHD: Ischemic heart disease; NCD: non-communicable disease. (World Health Organization 2015).

Distribution of cardiovascular mortality in low and low-middle income countries. CVD, cardiovascular disease (Borwry et al); modified from map of Developing and Developed Countries, determined by GNI per capita, ChartsBin.com. 

DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS IN CARDIOLOGY

A key aspect of cardiovascular care is the diagnostic testing. Without a precise diagnosis, clinical care is inefficient, and generates unnecessary expenses. There are multiple diagnostic tests in cardiology ranging from simple non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities (electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, cardiac tomography cardiac magnetic resonance) to invasive angiography. The optimal use of these exams is often controlled by diagnostic pathways, local availability and cost constraints. The projected economic burden of CVD in developing countries is expected to be dramatic encompassing significant costs on existing health care systems and budgets. Strategies to develop healthcare centers utilizing effective diagnostic approaches have the potential to dramatically influence the course of cardiovascular diseases within high-risk populations. It is reasonable to prioritize the improvement in the offer of diagnostic tests and specifically, advanced cardiac imaging techniques in low and middle income countries

CARDIAC MAGNETIC RESONANCE

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is a rapidly emerging non-invasive imaging technique providing high resolution images without the use of ionizing radiation. CMR is the gold standard for the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases.  CMR is the most reliable test for measuring structure and function of the heart and adds real incremental value over other tests by imaging scarring in heart muscle. CMR is therefore becoming a primary investigation tool in several countries.